The Bioavailability of Vitamins

The Bioavailability of Vitamins

Bioavailability is an important topic for both supplement manufacturers and consumers. High bioavailability is considered a good thing. Poor bioavailability is considered an issue. Are you interested in learning about the bioavailability of vitamins? What is bioavailability? Why is it important? What can you do to improve the bioavailability of your supplements? Read on to find out.

 

What is bioavailability?

When you take a vitamin or any other kind of supplement/medication, not all of the vitamin’s active ingredients are used by your body. While some of the supplement’s active ingredients are absorbed into the bloodstream, others are simply discarded by the body as waste. 

The bioavailability of vitamins refers to the percentage of the supplement’s active ingredient(s) that is/are absorbed into the bloodstream to be used by the body. 

High bioavailability means much of the nutritional value of the supplement will be absorbed and used. Low bioavailability, on the other hand, means the percentage of active ingredients actually used by the body is quite low. 

 

 

 

Why is bioavailability important?

The bioavailability of vitamins is important for both consumers and supplement manufacturers because only high bioavailability ensures that consumers are taking the correct amount of the supplement as indicated by the supplement’s label. 

For example, as a consumer, if you’ve been instructed by your doctor to take 250mg of vitamin C daily, you’ll likely buy a vitamin C supplement with this exact dosage written on the label. Of course, you want to be sure you’re actually getting the full dose as recommended by your doctor. High bioavailability means you’ll come pretty close to getting the full dosage. Low bioavailability means you might be way off. 

Likewise, as a supplement manufacturer or supplement brand, you want to make sure your consumers are getting the doses they’re recommended and the doses they’re paying for.  If a large percentage of a supplement’s active ingredients are not properly absorbed into the blood, the supplement will be less effective, which can disappoint and/or harm your customers. 

 

 

 

Factors affecting bioavailability (for manufacturers)

There are many factors affecting the bioavailability of vitamins. While some are mostly in the hands of consumers (time of day taking the supplement, taking the supplement with or without food, etc.), many factors affecting the bioavailability of a supplement are actually in the hands of supplement brands and manufacturers. 

Release times (immediate, delayed, extended, sustained, etc.) – Supplements designed for controlled release typically exhibit lower bioavailability than supplements designed for immediate release [1], although there are some exceptions.

Excipients used – Excipients, ingredients in a supplement that are not considered active ingredients, can also impact bioavailability. Lipid excipients, for example, enhance the bioavailability of a poorly soluble drug by keeping it in a liquid form, such as a softgel capsule, until it reaches the site of absorption. Read more about optimizing excipients to improve bioavailability

Specific manufacturing methods – Several manufacturing methods such as solid dispersion, complexation, lipid-based systems, micronization, nanonization, and co-crystals have been developed to improve the solubility and bioavailability of different drugs and vitamins. In recent years, solid dispersion has been one of the most widely used and successful techniques in formulation development [2] [3].

Supporting ingredients Some ingredients can increase the bioavailability of other nutrients. Vitamin C, for example, can enhance the bioavailability of iron [4].

Supplement formats – Supplement formats can greatly affect bioavailability. While tablets typically have slow absorption rates and low bioavailability, softgels have great bioavailability because they house liquid ingredients. For example, in one study featuring melatonin supplements, researchers found that softgels significantly increased the bioavailability of the supplement when compared with tablets [5]. Likewise, liquid vitamins typically have the greatest bioavailability of all supplement formats. 

 

Factors affecting bioavailability (for consumers)

Consumers can also play a role in the bioavailability of the supplements they take. In fact, there are three main factors consumers have control over: (1) whether they take the supplements when fed or when fasting, (2) whether the supplements interact with other foods or drugs they’re taking, and (3) how they store their supplements to ensure stability. 

Fed or fasting – The presence of food in the digestive tract can have a significant impact on bioavailability. Some supplements are more effective when taken on an empty stomach. Others are more effective when taken with a meal. 

Interactions with other food and/or drugs – It’s not only the presence of food that can affect the bioavailability of vitamins, it’s also the kind of food. Specifically, drugs like antacids, alcohol, and nicotine can affect bioavailability. Likewise, foods like grapefruit juice, pomello, and cranberry juice tend to have an impact. 

Storing supplements – Stability can certainly affect the bioavailability and effectiveness of a supplement. To ensure maximum stability and maximum bioavailability, it’s best to store supplements in a cool, dry area away from direct sunlight. 

 

 

 

Final notes on the bioavailability of vitamins

To summarize, the bioavailability of vitamins refers to the percentage of the supplement’s active ingredient(s) that is/are absorbed into the bloodstream to be used by the body. 

Bioavailability is important because only high bioavailability ensures that consumers are taking the correct amount of the supplement as indicated by the supplement’s label. 

Fortunately, there are many ways for manufacturers to improve the bioavailability of the supplements they’re producing. Likewise, consumers can and should follow instructions from manufacturers to ensure they’re absorbing the highest percentage of active ingredients possible. 

 

 

 

Are you looking for a supplement manufacturer? 

The bioavailability of your supplements can be the difference between creating an effective and popular dietary supplement formula and creating a formula that falls short of expectations. 

Generation Nutra has the knowledge to help you create highly effective formulas. Here are some additional benefits of building your supplement brand with Generation Nutra:

  1. Thousands of raw materials to choose from so you can create unique and personalized formulas.
  2. Advice in terms of formulation.
  3. Various packaging formats to choose from so you can customize your product. 
  4. A team of in-house graphic designers to help you design custom labels for your brand. 
  5. Advice and guidance to help you market and sell your product.

 

 

Are you looking for a supplement manufacturer? 

Ask Generation Nutra what we can do for you!

CONTACT GENERATION NUTRA 

 

 

References 

  1. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0928098714004126#b0295 
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6470797/ 
  3. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1359644607003753
  4. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20200263/
  5. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1517/17425255.2014.943183 
Nootropics for Motivation – 7 interesting ingredients supported by research

Nootropics for Motivation – 7 interesting ingredients supported by research

Nootropics, colloquially known as “smart drugs,” are supplements that are meant to improve cognitive performance. These smart drugs, which include nootropics for motivation, are a rising trend in the supplement industry. Consumers want to experience more than optimal health and physical fitness, they want to experience optimal performance in all areas, including their motivation levels. 

Although there are many kinds of nootropics and many ingredients available, in this article, we’ll focus on nootropics for motivation and discuss some of the most popular and interesting ingredients for nootropics for motivation according to the latest scientific research. 

Whether you’re a supplement brand interested in formulating these products, or you’re a consumer interested in giving them a try, these nootropics for motivation are worth learning about. 

 

 

The demand for nootropics for motivation 

Motivation is what drives a person to create the life they want to live. It’s the foundation of effort, productivity, goal-setting, and goal-achieving. 

Unfortunately, many factors can affect and reduce motivation, including tiredness, fatigue, anxiety, depression, lack of dopamine in the brain, burnout, the feeling of being overwhelmed, and general cognitive decline. 

People of all ages from all walks of life can be affected by these factors and, as a result, experience a lack of motivation. Fortunately, nootropics for motivation can improve these symptoms and help people everywhere achieve their goals. 

 

 

1. Caffeine increases motivation by combating tiredness.

Caffeine, naturally found in coffee, tea, and kola nuts, is the most widely consumed psychoactive drug in the world. Likewise, caffeine is one of the most common nootropics for motivation. 

Tiredness and fatigue can cause a severe lack of motivation. They can also negatively impact mood, alertness, cognitive performance, focus, and productivity. 

Caffeine works to increase motivation by combating tiredness. More specifically, caffeine provides temporary relief from sleep pressure by blocking adenosine receptors in the brain. [1] 

Several questionnaires and methods have been used to assess caffeine’s effects on tiredness, motivation, and mood. The general consensus is that caffeine (a) has a tendency to postpone sleep, (b) combats the negative effects of fatigue and boredom on performance, and (c) improves mood. [2] Altogether, these effects prove that caffeine is among the best nootropics for motivation. 

Caffeine nootropic for motivation

 

 

 

2. Tyrosine increases motivation by increasing dopamine. 

Tyrosine is a natural amino acid that is produced in the body. It’s also found in many high-protein foods, with especially high doses in cheese. In fact, “tyros” means cheese in Greek. [3]

Tyrosine is involved in the production of dopamine – a key neurotransmitter involved in the brain’s reward system and, therefore, a key neurotransmitter for motivation. [4] 

Suppose, for example, that nailing a presentation at work gives you great pleasure. As you’re preparing for your meeting, your brains may increase dopamine, anticipating that the meeting will go well. This anticipation, then, motivates you to continue working toward the ultimate reward – the flood of dopamine you’ll feel when the meeting and presentation actually does go well. 

Because of the direct link between tyrosine and dopamine, tyrosine is another common ingredient in nootropics for motivation. It’s also a common ingredient in nootropics for anxiety

 

Tyrosine nootropics for anxiety

 

 

 

3. Mucuna Pruriens also increases dopamine.

Mucuna Pruriens is a tropical legume native to Africa and tropical Asia and widely naturalized and cultivated. Its most common English name is “Velvet Bean”. [5] 

Mucuna Pruriens contains high levels of naturally occurring L-dopa, a precursor to dopamine. This means that Mucuna Pruriens can increase dopamine production in the brain and, therefore, increase motivation. 

Many studies suggest that Mucuna Pruriens (specifically increased L-dopa) may also provide benefits for learning and memory.  In one study, participants who had taken L-Dopa prior to learning exhibited higher recall accuracy during the learning session and at follow-up than those who had taken the placebo. [6] 

Research suggests that increased dopamine may do more than just increase motivation. It may also assist with learning and memory. This knowledge makes both Tyrosine and Mucuca Pruriens great ingredients for nootropics for motivation. 

mucuna pruriens nootropics for motivation

 

 

 

4. Rhodiola Rosea increases motivation by reducing burnout. 

Rhodiola Rosea (commonly known as golden root, rose root, roseroot) is a flowering plant in the Crassulaceae family that grows naturally in wild Arctic regions of Europe (including Britain), Asia, and North America. The plant has been used to treat anxiety and depression for thousands of years. 

In recent years, researchers have found that Rhodiola Rosea reduces stress (including symptoms of burnout), while at the same time reducing symptoms of fatigue and depression. 

In a 2017 study, researchers set out to test the effects of Rhodiola Rosea on symptoms of burnout, including feelings of energy depletion or exhaustion, feelings of negativism or cynicism related to one’s job, and reduced professional efficacy, just to name a few. The study examined a total of 118 participants who were given a daily dose of 400 mg Rhodiola Rosea over 12 weeks. They found that the supplement improved several symptoms of burnout after just 1 week of treatment and that symptoms continued to improve until the end of the study. [7] 

Reduced symptoms of burnout, fatigue, and depression typically translates to increased feelings of motivation, making Rhodiola Rosea another interesting ingredient for nootropics for motivation.  It’s also a common ingredient in nootropics for anxiety

Rhodiola Rosea nootropics for anxiety

 

 

 

5. Ginkgo Biloba increases motivation by reducing anxiety. 

Ginkgo biloba, also known as maidenhair, is a tree native to China that has been grown and cultivated since early human history. 

Although Ginkgo Biloba has many uses and properties, including strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capacities and an ability to improve circulation, one of its most interesting properties for increasing motivation is its ability to reduce symptoms of anxiety. 

In one study involving 107 people with generalized anxiety, the participants were treated with either 240 mg or 480 mg of ginkgo or a placebo. The group treated with the highest dose of ginkgo reported a 45% greater reduction in symptoms of anxiety, compared to the placebo group. [8]

Since lack of motivation is a common side effect of anxiety, Ginkgo Biloba might be the perfect nootropic for people suffering from a lack of motivation as a result of their anxiety. 

mucuna pruriens nootropics for motivation

 

 

 

6. Acetyl-L-Carnitine increases motivation by reducing depression.

Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) is an acetylated form of L-carnitine, an amino acid that is produced in the body. Although it’s naturally produced by the body, it is often also taken as a dietary supplement.

Low levels of ALCAR are associated with depression, especially severe depression that’s resistant to treatment. In one study involving 71 patients with a diagnosis of depression, those with the most severe depression also demonstrated the lowest levels of ALCAR. [9]

In a 2013 study conducted on rodents, researchers found that ALCAR had a fast-acting antidepressant effect on rats which was noticeable in just a few days. ALCAR has also been shown to improve both fatigue and depression in patients with chronic illnesses. Research suggests that it may work better for the elderly than for younger patients. [10] 

Since lack of motivation is a common side effect of depression, ALCAR might be an interesting nootropic to increase motivation. Still, more research is needed to determine the effectiveness of ALCAR as a nootropic for motivation. 

 

File:Carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine.png - Wikimedia Commons

 

 

7. Lion’s Mane increases motivation by improving overall cognitive performance. 

Lion’s Mane is an ancient Chinese medicinal mushroom that stimulates the production of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and, thus, contributes to motivation and cognitive performance. 

NGF is essential for the development, maintenance, and functional integrity of neurons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and the central nervous system (CNS). Since neurons in the CNS are partially responsible for attention, arousal, motivation, memory and consciousness, NFG plays a crucial role in developing and maintaining these functions. [11] 

Likewise, supplementing with Lion’s Mane can increase NGF and improve these functions. In a 2009 study, healthy adults with mild cognitive impairment received 3 g per day of Lion’s Mane extract for 16 weeks. Their cognitive function scores increased with each test but dropped when supplementation ended. [12] 

Another study demonstrated that Lion’s Mane can also improve symptoms of anxiety and depression.  In a 2010 study involving 30 women, results indicated Lion’s Mane improved sleep quality and reduced anxiety and depression symptoms when compared with the placebo. [13]

All in all, the effects of Lion’s Mane on NGF make Lion’s Mane an interesting ingredient to consider for nootropics for motivation. 

Lions mane nootropics

 

 

 

Conclusion 

Motivation is what drives a person to create the life they want to live. It’s the foundation of effort, productivity, goal-setting, and goal-achieving. 

That being said, many people need an extra push to find the motivation they need to achieve their goals. According to recent research, some of the most effective nootropics for motivation include: 

  • Caffeine increases motivation by combating tiredness.
  • Tyrosine increases motivation by increasing dopamine. 
  • Mucuna Pruriens also increases dopamine.
  • Rhodiola Rosea increases motivation by reducing burnout. 
  • Ginkgo Biloba increases motivation by reducing anxiety. 
  • Acetyl-L-Carnitine increases motivation by reducing depression.
  • Lion’s Mane increases motivation by improving overall cognitive performance. 

 

 

 

Are you looking for a supplement manufacturer? 

Quality ingredients can be the difference between creating an effective and popular dietary supplement formula and creating a formula that falls short of expectations. 

Generation Nutra uses only the best raw ingredients to help supplement brands create winning, successful, and prosperous formulas. Here are some additional benefits of building your supplement brand with Generation Nutra:

  1. Thousands of raw materials to choose from so you can create unique and personalized formulas.
  2. Advice in terms of formulation.
  3. Various packaging formats to choose from so you can customize your product. 
  4. A team of in-house graphic designers to help you design custom labels for your brand. 
  5. Advice and guidance to help you market and sell your product.

 

 

Are you looking for a supplement manufacturer? 

Ask Generation Nutra what they can do for you!

CONTACT GENERATION NUTRA 

 

 

References

  1. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/11/121101121604.htm 
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK209050/
  3. https://glosbe.com/en/en/tyros 
  4. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/L-tyrosine#section=FDA-Substances-Added-to-Food 
  5. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mucuna_Pruriens 
  6. https://www.frontiersin.org/10.3389/conf.fnhum.2015.217.00165/event_abstract 
  7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5370380/ 
  8. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16808927/
  9. https://www.pnas.org/content/115/34/8627 
  10. https://www.sciencealert.com/depression-linked-to-low-blood-levels-of-acetyl-l-carnitine-human-study# 
  11. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3543237/ 
  12. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18844328/ 
  13. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20834180/ 
Nootropics for Anxiety – 6 Interesting Ingredients

Nootropics for Anxiety – 6 Interesting Ingredients

Nootropics, colloquially known as “smart drugs,” are supplements that are meant to improve cognitive performance. These smart drugs, which include nootropics for anxiety, are a rising trend in the supplement industry. Consumers want to experience more than optimal health and physical fitness, they want to experience optimal performance in all areas. 

Although there are many kinds of nootropics and many ingredients available, in this article, we’ll focus on nootropics for anxiety. We’ll talk about the rising demand for these supplements, and we’ll discuss some of the most popular and interesting ingredients for nootropics for anxiety according to the latest scientific research. 

Whether you’re a supplement brand interested in formulating these products, or you’re a consumer interested in giving them a try, these nootropics for anxiety are worth learning about. 

 

 

 

The demand for nootropics for anxiety

Anxiety disorders are mental health disorders that are characterized by feelings of worry, anxiety, or fear that (a) rarely subside and (b) are strong enough to interfere with one’s daily activities. In addition to negatively impacting health, anxiety often leads to cognitive impairment, difficulty concentration, and difficulties with working memory. 

Anxiety disorders represent the most common mental illnesses in the U.S. Each year, anxiety disorders affect about 40 million adults or 18.1% of the adult population. [1] 

The statistics are even more astounding for teens. According to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), an estimated 31.9% of adolescents have some kind of anxiety disorder. [2] And, according to the American Test Anxieties Association (AMTAA), about 16 – 20% of students have high test anxiety, making this, according to the AMTAA “the most prevalent scholastic impairment in our schools today.” [3] 

Only 36.9% of people suffering from anxiety are receiving medical treatment for their anxiety. [4] There are a couple of reasons for such low numbers. Many people avoid medical treatment because of the stigma attached to mental illness. Others avoid treatment because many prescription anxiety medications come with unwanted side-effects such as drowsiness and fatigue. Not to mention, many anxiety medications are addictive. 

Because of the many negative side effects of anxiety medications, many people are turning to natural remedies and nootropics for anxiety. Although research is relatively new, many nootropics for anxiety show a lot of promise as effective treatments.  Below is a list of some of the most effective nootropics for anxiety according to the most recent research. 

 

 

 

1. L-theanine to reduce stress and promote relaxation 

L-theanine is a natural amino acid found most commonly in tea leaves, that is, leaves that come from the Camellia Sinensis plant. All teas (including white tea, green tea, oolong tea, and black tea) contain some amount of L-theanine. 

In recent years, researchers have found that L-theanine not only reduces stress and promotes relaxation but that it does so without producing drowsiness. 

In a 2019 study, 30 middle-aged individuals were split into two groups (a placebo group and a group that was administered 200mg of L-theanine daily). After four weeks, researchers found that stress-related symptoms (including symptoms of general anxiety and depression) significantly improved for the group that was administered L-theanine. They also found that sleep improved for the group taking L-theanine – another indication of stress-reduction. 

Furthermore, participants in this study did not report drowsiness. On the contrary, cognitive functions, verbal fluency, and executive function scores improved for the group taking L-theanine. [5] 

In another slightly older study from 2016, researchers tested the effects of L-theanine on subjects met with a stressful task. Thirty-four healthy adults aged 18–40 participated in the study. Researchers found that participants who drank an L-theanine drink an hour before the difficult task rated themselves as less stressed during the task. [6] 

L-theanine has also been found to inhibit blood pressure increase for people who normally experience higher blood pressure following certain mental tasks. That is to say, L-theanine can be used to control blood pressure when under mental stress. [7] 

Possible additional benefits:

  • Increases focus (when combined with caffeine) [8] 
  • Improve immune system response [9]
  • Tumor and cancer treatment [10] 
  • Improved sleep quality [11] 

All of the above makes L-theanine one of the most interesting ingredients for nootropics for anxiety. 

 

L theanine nootropics for anxiety

 

 

2. Rhodiola Rosea to reduce stress, burnout, and depression 

Rhodiola Rosea (commonly known as golden root or roseroot) is a flowering plant in the Crassulaceae family that grows naturally in wild Arctic regions of Europe (including Britain), Asia, and North America. The plant has been used to treat anxiety and depression for thousands of years. 

In recent years, researchers have found that Rhodiola Rosea reduces stress (including symptoms of burnout), while at the same time reducing symptoms of fatigue and depression. Research also indicates that Rhodiola Rosea may also improve cognitive function.

In 2012, researchers tested the effects of Rhodiola Rosea in 101 participants with stress-related symptoms. The participants were given 200 mg of the supplement twice a day for four weeks. The researchers found that the supplement significantly reduced stress and improved cognitive function. They also reported that improvements were observed even after just 3 days of treatment with continuing improvements after 1 and 4 weeks. [12] 

In another study from 2017, researchers set out to test the effects of Rhodiola Rosea on symptoms of burnout, including feelings of energy depletion or exhaustion, feelings of negativism or cynicism related to one’s job, and reduced professional efficacy, just to name a few. The study examined a total of 118 participants who were given a daily dose of 400 mg Rhodiola Rosea over 12 weeks. They found that the supplement improved several symptoms of burnout after just 1 week of treatment and that symptoms continued to improve until the end of the study. [13] 

If you’re thinking about taking Rhodiola Rosea to reduce anxiety, make sure they contain a standardized amount of 3% rosavins and 1% salidrosides, as these are the correct, naturally occurring proportions of these compounds in the plant. 

Possible additional benefits:

  • Improves cognitive function [14] 
  • May improve exercise performance [15]
  • May help control diabetes [16] 

Rhodiola Rosea nootropics for anxiety

 

 

3. Tyrosine to improve cognitive performance under stress

Tyrosine is a natural amino acid that is produced in the body. It’s involved in the production of dopamine (a neurotransmitter involved in producing a feeling of pleasure) and the production of adrenaline and noradrenaline (hormones responsible for our fight-or-flight response in stressful situations). 

Because Tyrosine is involved in the production of hormones and chemicals related to pleasure and stress, Tyrosine nootropics for anxiety may be able to improve performance in high-stress situations. The idea is that Tyrosine prepares the body to deal with the stress while, at the same time, making “dealing with the stress” feel a bit more pleasurable. 

Stress can greatly impact cognitive function, including working memory. In a 2013 study involving 22 women from Leiden University in the Netherlands, researchers found that Tyrosine significantly improved working memory during a mentally demanding task. [17] 

Furthermore, in a 2015 literature review involving 14 studies regarding the effects of Tyrosine, researchers concluded that, based on previous research, the supplement could be recommended to enhance mental performance under cognitive stress. [18]

Tyrosine could be a powerful ingredient to combat test anxiety. While Tyrosine is generally considered safe, it can produce some rare but serious side effects. If you’re thinking about adding Tyrosine to your line of nootropics for anxiety, make sure to research these side effects and make them clear. 

Tyrosine nootropics for anxiety

 

 

4. Ashwagandha to reduce cortisol levels

Ashwagandha is the name of a small evergreen tree that grows in India, the Middle East, and parts of Africa. People have been using this tree to heal their ailments, including stress and anxiety, for centuries. 

In the year 2000, research regarding Ashwagandha compared the effects of the supplement to the effects of Lorazepam – a powerful benzodiazepine which acts on the brain and nerves to reduce anxiety. [19]

In another study from 2012, researchers investigated the effects of Ashwagandha in 64 subjects with a history of chronic stress. The participants were given 300 mg of an extract from the root of the Ashwagandha plant two times a day for 60 days and were instructed to fill out a stress-assessment questionnaire before and after the 60 day period. Researchers found that Ashwagandha treatment significantly reduced the stress of the subjects in the study. [20] 

More recent research from 2019 indicates that Ashwagandha can actually reduce cortisol levels. Cortisol is also known as the stress hormone. In the 2019 study, sixty adults were randomly allocated to take either a placebo or 240 mg of a standardized ashwagandha extract (Shoden) once daily. After 60 days, the researchers reported a significant reduction in morning cortisol for the group taking the ashwagandha supplement. [21]

Possible additional benefits: 

  • May improve heart health [22] 
  • May reduce rheumatoid arthritis pain [23] 
  • May help treat neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease [24]
  • May help stop cell growth in certain cancers [25]

 

Ashwangandha nootropics for anxiety

 

 

5. Passionflower to quiet the mind with a sedative effect

Passionflower, also called Passiflora, is a family of plants containing over 500 species. Passiflora incarnata is the specific species of Passionflower that is often used to treat anxiety and insomnia. 

Passiflora incarnata is thought to work by boosting the level of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain. GABA is a naturally occurring amino acid that also works as an inhibitory neurotransmitter. That is, GABA blocks certain brain signals and decreases activity in the central nervous system, ultimately slowing down the brain. Simply put, Passionflower increases GABA, and GABA calms the mind. That being said, more research is required to prove that Passionflower really does affect GABA. For now, it’s just a theory, but the theory does have some support…

In one study, performed on 36 patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), researchers concluded that Passiflora extract and oxazepam (a common benzodiazepine to treat anxiety) were equally effective at treating anxiety, although the effects of oxazepam were noticed more quickly. Notably, they also concluded that job impairment was less likely with Passiflora incarnata than with oxazepam. [26] 

In another literature review form 2017, researchers concluded that the studies involved “were able to demonstrate a positive treatment effect of Passiflora incarnata L. leaf extracts and is good evidence of its sedative effect in anxiety and nervousness.” [27]

As mentioned, Passionflower can have a somewhat “sedative effect” and lead to drowsiness. This sedative effect actually makes Passionflower one of the best nootropics for anxiety-related insomnia. 

Passion flower nootropics for anxiety

 

 

6. Lemon balm to reduce anxiety and improve mood

Lemon balm, also known as Melissa officinalis, is a lemon-scented herb that comes from the mint family. The herb is native to Europe, North Africa, and West Asia but is currently grown all around the world. Lemon balm is sometimes called the “bringer of gladness” for its ability to reduce anxiety and improve mood. 

Researchers are not sure exactly how Lemon balm works to improve anxiety but think it works similarly to the way Passionflower works: by boosting levels of GABA and, therefore, calming the mind. [28]

In one early study from 2004, researchers found that 600 mg of Lemon balm decreased laboratory-induced psychological stress and increased self-ratings of calmness. Such a high dosage, however, also led to reduced self-ratings of alertness. [29] 

In another more recent study for 2014, researchers tested the effect of lemon balm on mood and cognitive function when administered through food (beverages and yogurt). They concluded that “both active lemon balm treatments were generally associated with improvements in mood and/or cognitive performance.” They did, however, admit to some behavioral “costs.” [30] 

In conclusion, lemon balm may be a nootropic for anxiety when issued in low doses and when combined with other supplements. Higher doses of Lemon balm, on the other hand, may cause drowsiness, which means Lemon balm may also be an effective treatment for anxiety-related insomnia. 

 

Lemon balm nootropics for anxiety

 

 

Conclusion 

Anxiety disorders represent the most common mental illnesses in the U.S. Because anxiety medications also come with harmful side effects, many people who suffer from anxiety are turning to natural nootropics for anxiety to lessen their symptoms. 

According to recent research, some of the most effective nootropics for anxiety include: 

  • L-theanine – reduces stress and promotes relaxation
  • Rhodiola Rosea – reduces stress, burnout, and depression
  • Tyrosine – improves cognitive performance under stress
  • Ashwagandha – reduces cortisol levels
  • Passionflower – quiets the mind with a sedative effect
  • Lemon balm – reduces anxiety and improves mood

 

 

Are you looking for a supplement manufacturer? 

 

 

Quality ingredients can be the difference between creating an effective and popular dietary supplement formula and creating a formula that falls short of expectations. 

Generation Nutra uses only the best raw ingredients to help supplement brands create winning, successful, and prosperous formulas. Here are some additional benefits of building your supplement brand with Generation Nutra:

  1. Thousands of raw materials to choose from so you can create unique and personalized formulas.
  2. Advice in terms of formulation.
  3. Various packaging formats to choose from so you can customize your product. 
  4. A team of in-house graphic designers to help you design custom labels for your brand. 
  5. Advice and guidance to help you market and sell your product.

 

Are you looking for a supplement manufacturer? 

Ask Generation Nutra what they can do for you!

CONTACT GENERATION NUTRA 

 

 

 

References

  1. https://adaa.org/about-adaa/press-room/facts-statistics 
  2. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/any-anxiety-disorder.shtml 
  3. http://amtaa.org/ 
  4. https://adaa.org/about-adaa/press-room/facts-statistics
  5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6836118/#B53-nutrients-11-02362 
  6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4728665/ 
  7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3518171/ 
  8. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1179/147683010X12611460764840 
  9. https://www.mdpi.com/2306-5710/2/2/13/htm 
  10. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13205-011-0036-2
  11. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6836118/#B53-nutrients-11-02362 
  12. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22228617/ 
  13. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5370380/ 
  14. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22228617/ 
  15. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15256690/ 
  16. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29093682/ 
  17. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3863934/ 
  18. https://watermark.silverchair.com/milmed-d-14-00594.pdf
  19. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0944711300800306?via%3Dihub 
  20. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23439798/ 
  21. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6750292/ 
  22. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4687242/ 
  23. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4405924/ 
  24. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3252722/ 
  25. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3252722/ 
  26. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11679026/  
  27. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5770524/
  28. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ptr.2712 
  29. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15272110/ 
  30. https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/6/11/4805/htm  
Softgel Capsules – Key considerations for supplement brands

Softgel Capsules – Key considerations for supplement brands

If you’re developing a supplement, you should know that the supplement format you choose for your product (tablets, softgel capsules, powders, gummies, etc.) can have a significant impact on both the way it works and how well it sells. 

While supplement brands and supplement manufacturers tend to look for formats that contribute to great bioavailability and shelf-life. Consumers are often looking for formats that are easy to swallow, convenient, and not horrible tasting. 

Softgel capsules meet many key criteria for both supplement brands and consumers, which is why they’re among the most preferred supplement formats. 

Are you considering adding softgel capsules to your line of supplement products? In this article you’ll learn all about softgel capsules, including the advantages and disadvantages of softgels for both brands and consumers. 

 

 

What are softgel capsules?

Softgel capsules are pills, containing vitamins, minerals, amino acids, or other forms of dietary supplements, that are meant to be swallowed. Once swallowed, the contents of the capsule, including its active ingredients, are released into the bloodstream through the digestive tract. 

There are two primary pill formats: tablets and capsules. Tablets are made by compressing powder ingredients together. These powder ingredients include both active ingredients and binding agents. Capsules are not made by compressing powder ingredients with binding agents. Rather, for capsules, the pill’s active ingredients are enclosed in an outer shell. Once swallowed, the outer shell is broken down, and then the pill’s ingredients are released into the digestive tract. 

Likewise, there are two types of capsules: softgel capsules and hard-shell capsules.

 

 

Softgel capsules vs hard-shell capsules 

There are two main differences between softgel capsules and hard-shell capsules. 

The first difference has to do with the kind of ingredients they carry. Hard-shell capsules typically hold powder ingredients. Softgel capsules hold liquid ingredients. 

The second major difference has to do with the way they’re made to hold their ingredients. Hard-shell capsules consist of two halves that come together to form an enclosed casing around the powder ingredients. Softgels, on the other hand, are produced in a process known as encapsulation which can best be described as a form/fill/seal process.

Although there are only two primary differences between softgels and hard-shell capsules in terms of what they are and how they’re made, there is quite a bit of difference in terms of benefits for supplement brands and consumers. Below, you’ll find some comments and key considerations regarding softgel capsules. 

softgel capsules vs hard-shell capsules

 

 

 

Key considerations for supplement brands

 

Softgel capsules have great bioavailability. 

When a pill is ingested, not all of its active ingredients are always absorbed into the bloodstream. Bioavailability is defined as the proportion of the supplement’s active ingredients that are actually absorbed into the blood.

Bioavailability can have a huge impact on supplement sales. If a large portion of a supplement’s active ingredients are not properly absorbed into the blood, the supplement will be less effective, ultimately disappointing (and sometimes hurting) consumers. 

Compared to other supplement formats like tablets, hard-shell capsules, and powders, softgels have great bioavailability. This is for two primary reasons: 

  1. Liquid vitamins have better bioavailability than powder ingredients, and softgels contain liquid ingredients. 
  2. Contrary to tablets and hard-shell capsules, softgel capsules have a soft shell that’s more easily dissolved.

 

Softgel capsules have very fast absorption rates. 

Absorption rate is related to bioavailability, but they’re not the same thing. While bioavailability refers to how much of the supplements active ingredients are absorbed into the bloodstream, absorption rate refers to the speed of absorption or how long it takes for the ingredients to be absorbed. 

Different supplement formats have different rates of absorption. Some formats like liquids and softgels, are absorbed faster than others. 

That being said, faster isn’t always better. For supplements with higher potencies, slower absorption rates are preferred. The body can’t absorb so much so fast. If the supplement supplies too many active ingredients at once, what’s not absorbed in time will end up as waste. On the other hand, fast absorption rates are crucial for some supplements, especially supplements that provide energy like pre-workouts.

The point is: If you’re thinking about manufacturing softgels, keep their fast absorption rates in mind. 

 

 

Softgels are rather durable (long-lasting). 

Durability (shelf-life) is important for both supplement brands and consumers. Brands need durable supplements because they need sufficient time to be able to sell their supplements. And, to state the obvious, consumers prefer durable supplements because expired supplements are useless. 

Despite their instability, while manufacturing, once manufactured, softgels are among the most stable, durable, and long-lasting supplement formats. In fact, active ingredients in softgels last longer than active ingredients in hard-shell capsules, liquids, and powders. 

Softgels are extra durable for two reasons. First, the gelatin exterior adds superior protection for the active ingredients inside. Second, since the materials inside are completely sealed and airtight, they’re never exposed to external factors. 

Active ingredients in liquids and powders are exposed to external factors each time their containers are opened and closed. Hard-shell capsules offer some protection, but because hard-shells consist of two parts, air, moisture, and other environmental factors can seep in. 

 

 

Softgel capsules are easy to customize.

In the competitive industry of dietary supplements, customization is extremely important. Customized supplements can make your brand stand out from the rest, help you appeal to your specific niche customer, and help you create more brand awareness. If consumers can see your capsule and know it’s from your brand without even looking at the bottle, you know you’re doing a great job. 

Softgels offer a lot of customization options in terms of colors, shapes, and sizes. The possibilities are almost endless. Just make sure you choose a supplement manufacturer that can customize your softgel capsules the way you want. 

 

Softgels are easy to swallow.

Swallowing pills is a big issue for many consumers:

  • Between 30 and 40% of the adult population has difficulty swallowing pills. [1]
  • About 20% of aged care residents reportedly skip medications because of their inability to swallow them. [2]
  • More than 25% of kids have difficulty swallowing medication. [3]

One of the greatest benefits of softgels is that the softness, smoothness, and flexibility of softgel capsules makes them easier to swallow than other pill formats. In fact, multiple surveys have shown that consumers prefer softgel capsules to other pill formats because they’re easier to swallow. [4]

 

 

Softgels can be quite expensive.

Of all pill formats (softgels, capsules, and tablets), softgels are usually the most complicated to manufacture and, as a result, the most expensive. Finding a softgel manufacturer with competitive prices can be quite a challenge. 

First of all, softgel manufacturing requires special additional pharmaceutical equipment that’s not required for other pill formats. Such equipment includes gelatin melters, reactors to prepare the fill material, encapsulators, tumble dryers, drying trays, and drying tunnels, just to name a few. The cost of all of this machinery adds up and affects the final price of softgel manufacturing. Not to mention, many supplement manufacturers need a separate room for softgel manufacturing to house all of this equipment. This also adds to the cost. 

Another key factor affecting price has to do with environmental requirements when manufacturing softgels. Since softgel manufacturing requires high heat and humidity, supplement manufacturers must take special measures to control these environmental factors when manufacturing. The need for controlled environment rooms also adds to the cost. 

 

 

Plant-based options are complicated.

Vegetarianism and veganism are up-and-coming trends that supplement brands, along with all other food producers, must learn to accommodate. [5]

In a 2018 gallup poll, consisting of 1,033 adult Americans, surveyors concluded that between 5 and 8% of Americans are vegetarians. [6] In another study, involving 607 consumers in the UK, France and Italy, researchers found that more than three-quarters of respondents preferred plant-based options for their supplements. [7]

This preference for plant-based supplements poses a couple of problems for softgel manufacturers

  1. Plant-based capsules are even more expensive. 
  2. Plant-based shells aren’t as strong as animal-based gelatin. 
  3. Plant-based gelatin is more difficult to work with in terms of encapsulation. 
  4. Plant-based gelatin is more porous. This means the ingredients inside are exposed to environmental factors, ultimately hurting the durability of the supplement. 

If your target audience is absolutely opposed to animal-based products, it might be better to use a different supplement format. 

 

 

Some formulations are challenging for softgels.

Pharmaceutical formulation, or supplement formulation, is the process in which different chemical substances, including the active supplement’s active ingredients, are combined to produce a final medicinal product. 

The process of formulation poses two significant challenges for softgel manufacturers: 

  1. Some ingredients, like probiotics, can’t handle the heat and humidity that’s necessary for softgel manufacturing. 
  2. Some ingredients, particularly powder ingredients, don’t blend well into an oil base – a necessary step for softgel formulation. 

That being said, there is technology available to combat these challenges, and the best softgel manufacturers use these technologies during formulation. Just keep in mind that softgel manufacturers with this advanced technology will likely charge a higher price for their services. 

 

 

Conclusions: Choosing an appropriate supplement format

It’s important to weigh the pros and cons of various supplement formats when choosing an appropriate format for your supplements. 

For softgels, the pros include:

  • Great bioavailability 
  • Fast absorption rates (although not always a benefit) 
  • Long-lasting / Long shelf-life 
  • Customization options 
  • Easy to swallow 

The disadvantages include: 

  • Price 
  • Complications with plant-based options 
  • Complications with formulation 

Of course, other supplement formats have unique pros and cons as well. 

One of the best ways to ensure that you’re choosing the right format for your supplements is by choosing a supplement manufacturer that can offer you advice. That way, you can get tips and advice from experts who not only understand supplement format options but also understand the industry, your exact product, and the needs of your customers.

 

 

Generation Nutra for your softgel manufacturing

 

 

Generation Nutra offers many types of supplement formats, including tablets, softgels, capsules, liquid vitamins, powders, and gummies. Here are some additional benefits of building your supplement brand with Generation Nutra: 

  1. Thousands of raw materials to choose from so you can create unique and personalized formulas.
  2. Advice in terms of formulation.
  3. Various packaging formats to choose from so you can customize your product. 
  4. A team of in-house graphic designers to help you design custom labels for your brand. 
  5. Advice and guidance to help you market and sell your product.

 

Ask Generation Nutra what they can do for you!

CONTACT GENERATION NUTRA

 

References 

  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4589822/ 
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6065591
  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4184198/
  4. https://cdn.sanity.io/files/0vv8moc6/nutrioutlook/06f93cd036146638e58bbcd88b9994e44e29e1dd.pdf 
  5. https://www.persistencemarketresearch.com/market-research/softgel-capsules-market.asp 
  6. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vegetarianism_by_country
  7. http://japan.catalent.com/index.php/content/download/504/5570/file/wp_consumerws%20prefer%20oral%20forms.pdf 

 

Gummy Supplements – Key Considerations for Supplement Brands 

Gummy Supplements – Key Considerations for Supplement Brands 

If you’re developing a supplement, you should know that the supplement format you choose can have a significant impact on your sales. Not all consumers appreciate swallowing two large tablets or capsules for breakfast. Not to mention, many consumers are actually unable to swallow pills. Fortunately, gummy supplements provide customers with an easy (and delicious) way to get all of their required vitamins and minerals. It’s no wonder the demand for gummy vitamins is one of the fastest-growing trends in the supplement industry. 

Are you considering manufacturing and selling gummy supplements to your target market? In this article, you’ll learn all about the gummy supplement industry, including the advantages and disadvantages of gummy vitamins for both manufacturers and consumers. 

 

 

What are gummy supplements? 

Gummy supplements are chewable dietary supplements that include vitamins, minerals, and/or amino acids. They’re similar to gummy bears or other gummy candies in many regards, including taste, texture, and composition. However, in addition to the typical ingredients in candy gummies (corn starch, gelatin, sugar, water, and added colorings), gummy supplements also contain vitamins, minerals, and/or amino acids that make up their active ingredients.

Because gummy vitamins are easy to swallow and also taste great, many consumers of all ages prefer gummy vitamins to other supplement formats like capsules, tablets, and powders.

 

Gummy supplement industry facts and figures

Supplement brands and gummy manufacturers originally produced and sold gummy vitamins for kids. They provided a fun way to get children to take their vitamins. 

In 2012, however, Perrigo, a supplement company with headquarters in Ireland, began producing and selling gummy products to adults. [1] In the following years, adults became aware of the many advantages of gummy vitamins (great taste, convenience, no difficulty swallowing, etc.) and began to prefer and demand gummy supplements over other traditional supplement formats like powders and pills. Likewise, many other supplement brands and manufacturers began marketing gummy products to the adult market. 

Today, the demand for gummy vitamins is one of the fastest-growing trends in the supplement industry. The gummy vitamins market size was valued at $5.7 billion in 2018 and is expected to reach $9.3 billion by 2026. This increase in market size equates to a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 6.5% from 2019 to 2026. [2]  

Furthermore, today, the adult segment of the market holds nearly two-thirds of the global gummy market in terms of revenue and is expected to dominate the market through 2026. Although manufacturers do produce gummy vitamins for kids, most gummy supplements produced today are meant for adults. [3]

 

 

Advantages of gummy supplements 

There are many reasons why both adults and children prefer gummy supplements over other formats. Likewise, there are many advantages for supplement brands and manufacturers. 

 

 

1. Easy to take/swallow

One of the most obvious benefits of gummy supplements is that they’re easy to swallow. This makes them appealing to a large percentage of the population, including kids under 12 years old, seniors older than 65, people with certain medical conditions that make swallowing difficult, and the 30 and 40% of the general adult population that simply has difficulty swallowing pills. 

  • More than 25% of kids have difficulty swallowing medication. [4]
  • Between 30 and 40% of the adult population has difficulty swallowing pills. [5]
  • About 20% of aged care residents reportedly skip medications because of their inability to swallow them. [6]

 

2. Great taste

Taste is another major factor influencing consumer compliance. It’s not always easy for supplement brands and manufacturers to make great tasting supplements, especially when it comes to tablets and liquids. However, it’s quite easy for supplement brands to make great tasting gummy vitamins. Gummy vitamins are made with much of the same ingredients as candy gummies (corn starch, gelatin, sugar, water, and added colorings), which means, they’re not only easy to chew and swallow, but they also taste great. 

 

3. More convenient for consumers 

Likewise, convenience is another factor that consumers take into account when buying vitamins and other supplements. Because gummy supplements are easy to chew and swallow without water or any other liquid, gummy supplements are among the most convenient supplement formats. Consumers can grab a gummy and walk out the door without having to worry about preparing a drink to be able to swallow it. 

 

4. Consumer compliance (for all reasons listed above)

Compliance (whether or not consumers continue to take their supplements as recommended) is another key element that all supplement brands should consider when choosing supplement formats. Compliance not only means better results for consumers (and better reviews for brands), but it also means that consumers will finish their supplements faster and, hopefully, buy more. Since gummy vitamins are easy to swallow, great-tasting, and convenient, they lead to more consumer compliance, better reviews, and more sales. 

 

5. May have greater bioavailability

When consumers take supplements, not all of the supplement’s active ingredients are always absorbed into the bloodstream. Bioavailability is defined as the proportion of the supplement’s active ingredients that are actually absorbed into the blood. In a 2019 study, researchers compared the bioavailability of single oral dose Vitamin D3 gummies vs. tablets in healthy adults and found that the gummies had greater bioavailability than the tablets. [7]

 

6. New gelatin-free alternative for vegetarians and vegans

Gummies are traditionally made with gelatin, which is usually obtained from cows or pigs. Considering the recent growth of vegetarianism and veganism, this could pose a problem for gummy supplement manufacturers. However, in recent years, supplement brands have found a way to substitute gelatin with pectin, a naturally occurring starch found in fruits and vegetables. 

 

7. Other customization options 

As previously mentioned, gummies are typically made of corn starch, gelatin, sugar, water, and added colorings. But, with advancements in ingredient technologies and product development, gummy supplements can also be customized to meet specific consumer preferences. The best gummy manufacturers can produce gummies with reduced sugar, increased fiber, natural colors and flavors, pectin instead of gelatin, etc. They can even play with texture to produce softer gummies that melt in the mouth or harder gummies that require more chewing. These customization options make it easier to target consumers and meet their needs. 

 

 

Disadvantages of gummy supplements

Although the gummy format is the preferred supplement format among many consumers, there are a couple of disadvantages that both supplement brands and consumers should keep in mind. 

 

 

1. Limited amount of active ingredients 

One of the biggest disadvantages of the gummy supplement format is that manufacturers are unable to add a large number of active ingredients to each gummy.  For example, if a brand wants to deliver 250 mg of vitamin C to a consumer (an average dose for one capsule or tablet), they would have to issue a serving size of 3 to 4 gummies. This means consumers would need to consume a large number of inactive ingredients (sugar, corn starch, gelatin, etc.) to experience the benefits of one serving size. In addition, with the use of so many extra ingredients, the price of manufacturing per serving size would also increase. 

 

2. Instability

The gummy format is not the most stable of all formats. First and foremost, high temperatures can melt gummy vitamins. Manufacturers and consumers need to make sure they’re stored at proper temperatures. Secondly, some minerals commonly used in supplements can actually interfere with the gummies’ gelatin or pectin – the ingredients giving the gummies their soft and chewy texture. This interference can ruin the texture of the vitamins, making them too soft, too hard, or changing their texture over time. 

 

 

Choosing a gummy supplement manufacturer

Are you thinking about adding gummy supplements to your line of products? 

There is a lot to keep in mind when choosing appropriate formats for your supplements. That being said, with a little help, choosing formats can be a fun and exciting process.

One of the best ways to ensure that you’re making the right decision is by choosing a supplement manufacturer that can offer you advice. That way, you can get tips and advice from experts who not only understand supplement format options but also understand the industry, your exact product, and the needs of your customers.

Generation Nutra offers many types of supplement formats, including tablets, softgels, capsules, liquid vitamins, powders, and gummies.

Here are some additional benefits of building your supplement brand with Generation Nutra: 

  1. Thousands of raw materials to choose from so you can create unique and personalized formulas.
  2. Advice in terms of formulation.
  3. Various packaging formats to choose from so you can customize your product. 
  4. A team of in-house graphic designers to help you design custom labels for your brand. 
  5. Advice and guidance to help you market and sell your product.

 

Ask Generation Nutra what they can do for you!

CONTACT GENERATION NUTRA

 

References

  1. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/02/28/well/eat/vitamins-gone-gummy.html 
  2. https://www.globenewswire.com/news-release/2020/04/02/2010408/0/en/Global-Gummy-Vitamins-Market-to-Reach-9-3-Bn-by-2026-Allied-Market-Research.html 
  3. https://www.globenewswire.com/news-release/2020/04/02/2010408/0/en/Global-Gummy-Vitamins-Market-to-Reach-9-3-Bn-by-2026-Allied-Market-Research.html 
  4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4184198/
  5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4589822/ 
  6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6065591/
  7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6566230/